Thanos and the Prometheus Operator.
Note: This guide is valid for Prometheus Operator v0.28+ and Thanos v0.2+ and above.
Thanos is a set of components that can be composed into a highly available, multi Prometheus metric system with potentially unlimited storage capacity, if your Object Storage allows for it.
Before continuing with Prometheus Operator Thanos integration, it is recommended to read more about Thanos in the documentation.
What does the Prometheus Operator help with?
Prometheus Operator operates
Prometheus and optionally
Other Thanos components, such as the querier and store gateway, must be configured
separately. The Thanos system integrates with Prometheus by adding a Thanos
sidecar to each Prometheus instance. The Thanos sidecar can be configured directly in the
Prometheus CRD. This Sidecar can hook into the Thanos querying system as well as optionally back up your data in object storage.
Each component other than the sidecar and
ThanosRuler is deployed independently of the Prometheus Operator and its Thanos configuration. The
kube-thanos project has some starting points for other Thanos components deployments.
In short, for the Thanos integration using the Prometheus Operator to work correctly you will need to have these extra components installed and configured.
Prometheus Custom Resource with Thanos Sidecar
Prometheus CRD has support for adding a Thanos sidecar to the Prometheus
Pod. To enable the sidecar, reference the following examples.
This is the simplest configuration change that needs to be made to your Prometheus Custom Resource, after creating the secret.
... spec: ... thanos: baseImage: quay.io/thanos/thanos version: v0.8.1 ...
Configuring Thanos Object Storage
If you want sidecar to be able to upload blocks to object storage you need to tell Prometheus Operator about it.
In this mode, sidecar assumes an existing Kubernetes Secret containing the Thanos configuration. Inside this secret you configure how to run Thanos with your object storage.
For more information and examples about the configuration itself, take a look at the Thanos documentation: https://github.com/thanos-io/thanos/blob/main/docs/storage.md
Once you have written your configuration save it to a file. Here’s an example:
type: s3 config: bucket: thanos endpoint: ams3.digitaloceanspaces.com access_key: XXX secret_key: XXX
Let’s assume you saved this file to
/tmp/thanos-config.yaml. You can use the following command to create a secret called
thanos-objstore-config inside your cluster in the
kubectl -n monitoring create secret generic thanos-objstore-config --from-file=thanos.yaml=/tmp/thanos-config.yaml
And then you can specify this secret inside Thanos part of the Prometheus CRD we mentioned earlier:
... spec: ... thanos: baseImage: quay.io/thanos/thanos version: v0.8.1 objectStorageConfig: key: thanos.yaml name: thanos-objstore-config ...
This will attach Thanos sidecar that will backup all new blocks that Prometheus produces every 2 hours to the object storage.
NOTE: This option will also disable local Prometheus compaction. This means that Thanos compactor is the main singleton component responsible for compactions on a global, object storage level.
The Thanos Ruler component allows recording and alerting rules to be processed across
multiple Prometheus instances. A
ThanosRuler instance requires at least one
queryEndpoint which points to the location of Thanos Queriers or Prometheus instances. The
queryEndpoints are used to configure the
--query arguments(s) of the Thanos runtime.
... apiVersion: monitoring.coreos.com/v1 kind: ThanosRuler metadata: name: thanos-ruler-demo labels: example: thanos-ruler namespace: monitoring spec: image: quay.io/thanos/thanos ruleSelector: matchLabels: role: my-thanos-rules queryEndpoints: - dnssrv+_http._tcp.my-thanos-querier.monitoring.svc.cluster.local
The recording and alerting rules used by a
ThanosRuler component, are configured using the same
PrometheusRule objects which are used by Prometheus. In the given example, the rules contained in any
PrometheusRule object which match the label
role=my-thanos-rules will be added to the Thanos Ruler POD.
Other Thanos Components
Deploying the sidecar was the first step towards getting Thanos up and running, but there are more components to be deployed, that complete Thanos:
Additionally, when object storage backup is desired:
Again, take a look at the Thanos documentation for more details on these components: thanos.io/tip/thanos/quick-tutorial.md
kube-thanos project has already supported several thanos components. For more details, please checkout kube-thanos.